What is a Computer?
A computer is a group of electronic and mechanical devices that can perform various operations on the data (input, processing, storage) in accordance with a given set of instructions to produce useful results or information. The unprocessed or the raw facts are called data, whereas processed and meaningful facts are termed as information.
Functioning of a Computer System
A computer can store, process and retrieve data as and when desired. The fact that a computer processes data is so fundamental that it is rightly called a Data Processor.
A computer has four functions:
Input (Data): Input is the raw information which is entered into a computer from the input devices. It is basically the collection of letters, images and numbers etc.
Process: Process is the operation of data as per the given instruction. It is totally internal process of the computer system.
Output: Output is the processed data given by computer after data processing is completed. Output is also known as the result. Even, these results can be stored for further use.
Organization of a Computer
To perform the subtasks of input, processing and output various devices are used. The computer system can be broadly divided into following parts:
Various input devices are keyboards, mouse, joysticks, etc.
Further divided into;
Arithmetic Logic Unit and Control Unit
Primary Memory/Internal Memory as;
And, Secondary/External Memory as;
Various output devices are Monitor (VDU), Printer, etc.
Types of Computers
Computers can be classified according to size and storage capacity.
The various characteristics of the computer that has made them indispensable are:
Generation of Computer
First Generation (1940-56)
The first generation computers used vacuum tubes & machine language was used for giving the instructions. These computers were large in size & their programming was a difficult task. The electricity consumption was very high.
Some computers of this generation are ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC & UNIVAC-1.
Second Generation (1956-63)
In 2nd generation computers, vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors. They required only 1/10 of power required by tubes. This generation computer generated less heat and was reliable. The first operating system developed in this generation.
The Third Generation (1964-71)
The 3rd generation computers replaced transistors with an Integrated circuit known as chips. Small scale integrated circuits which had 10 transistors per chip, a technology developed to MSI circuits with 100 transistors per chip. These computers were smaller, faster and more reliable. High-level languages invented in this generation.
The Fourth Generation (1972- 2010)
LSI (Large scale Integrated) and VLSI (Very large scale integrated) were used in this generation. As a result, microprocessors came into existence. The computers using this technology known to be Micro Computers. High capacity hard disk was invented. There is a great development in data communication.
The Fifth Generation (2011 - present)
Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that is being used today. The day is not far when artificial intelligence will become a reality with the help of parallel processing and superconductors. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come.
Areas of Applications
The reduction in cost and size has led to an increase in the applications of computers for the benefit of the common man. Some of the areas are;
Shortcomings of Computers
As you are aware, the computer is a device invented by human beings to render work easier. However, it suffers from the following shortcomings;
It doesn’t have the intelligence of its own. It can perform tasks given to it with great speed and accuracy, but it needs instructions at each step.
It cannot make decisions on its own. It lacks this power.
It cannot learn from previous experiences. An occurrence of any error is repeated again and again, if not corrected by the user.
Which is used for manufacturing chips?
The value of each bead in heaven is?
Mnemonic a memory trick is used in which of the following language?
|c)||High level language|
|d)||Low level Language|
Instruction in computer languages consists of?
Which generation of computer is still under development?
A register organized to allow left or right operations is called a ____?
BCD stands for ___________.
Bit Coded Digit
Binary Coded Decimal
Bit Coded Decimal
Binary Coded Digit
When was the world’s first laptop computer introduced in the market and by whom?
|c)||Laplink Travelling Software Inc., 1982|
|d)||Tandy Model-200, 1985|
From which generation operating systems were developed?
How many address lines are needed to address each machine location in a 2048 x 4 memory chip?
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